Far up the valley, where the hills draw together, with Russian river flowing between, is snugly nestled the town of Cloverdale. It is a few miles south of the northern boundary of the county. North of Cloverdale for one hundred miles on the waters of Russian river and its tributaries, there are a series of small, beautiful and fertile valleys, separated by spurs from the main range, which extend as bluffs to the river, and link the valleys as a chain. The hills back of the river are in the main bare of trees, and produce an abundant grass crop, upon which thousands of sheep are kept. These hills and valleys form a portion of the back-country of Cloverdale. The Indians remained long about the mouth of Sulphur creek, and up that stream as far as the Geysers, receding only when the ever-increasing pressure of the white race forced them back.

In 1856 R. Markle and a man named Miller purchased eight hundred and fifty acres of land, which included the present site of the town of Cloverdale. The first merchant north of Geyserville was a man named Levi Rosenburg. He had a store on the east side of the river, near the mouth of Sulphur creek. In 1857 J. H. Hartman and F. G. Hahman, pioneer merchants of Santa Rosa, conceived the idea of opening a trading-post at Markle's place, which was on the main highway to Ukiah and Humboldt, if a pack-trail can be properly termed a "highway." The store was opened under the firm-name of Hartman & Hahman, and about the same time Markle opened a tavern for the accommodation of travelers and pack-trains. Thus originated the town of Cloverdale. It was situated in a beautiful semi-circular valley, covered with clover, and Mr. Hartman gave it the appropriate name of Cloverdale, which it fortunately yet retains. Mrs. Markle was the first woman who settled in the new town, or rather, who settled there before there was a town. She is said, by those who knew her, to have been remarkably pretty--a peculiarity for which her successors of the fairer sex in Cloverdale are still noted.

In 1859 J. A. Kleiser purchased the interest of R. B. Markle in the land, and the town was laid off. Hartman & Hahman sold out to Levi & Co. Others came in, but the town grew slowly. It slept, as it were, in its cradle for a decade, when one day it was awakened by the scream of the iron-horse, which halted on its threshold. Lots went up, and expectations (not to be gratified in the near future) led to over-speculation in town lots and land; a re-action set in, from which the place has recently recovered, and it has commenced a steady and healthy growth. Cloverdale is a center from which stage-roads branch out in many directions: first, the principal (and easiest) route to the Geyser springs starts from Cloverdale; these springs are but sixteen miles distant from the town. There is also a daily stage line to Lakeport, and from there to the celebrated Bartlett springs, and a daily line of stages to Ukiah--and, through Anderson valley, to the Navarra ridge, in Mendocino county--both of which lead through a rich and soon to be thickly-settled country. From Cloverdale to San Francisco the distance is about eighty-five miles. Trains of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad leave Cloverdale twice every day for the city, and return there at 12 M. and 8 P.M. every day.

Russian River valley, in the neighborhood of Cloverdale, can nowhere be surpassed for beauty and salubrity of climate. Its soil is fertile, and the river bottom lands are well adapted to the growth of hops. The hill land in this section of the county is well suited to grape-culture. Here is combined that geniality of soil and climate essential for the production of a light and highly-flavored wine.

In the town there are about a dozen stores, two good hotels, and the usual number of other business places. The public-school building is well constructed, and presents, with its shade of native oaks, a very attractive appearance. There is a Congregational church, of which J. W. Atherton is pastor, and a Methodist Church South, W. P. Andrews, pastor. There is an I.O.O.F. and a Masonic lodge, and a Grange, which hold regular meetings.

The Cloverdale water works supply the town with water for all demands, with sufficient head to be effective in case of fire. There are a number of very neat residences in the town, more in proportion than in most places of no greater population. Among the best are the houses of I. E. Shaw, H. Kier, J. F. Hoadley, and the pioneer, J. A. Kleiser. The town has a thrifty and healthy look. It boasts of one newspaper, an excellent local journal. The population is about seven hundred.

The town was incorporated by special act of the legislature of 1875-6. Following is a list of the city and township officers: J. A. Kleiser, G. V. Davis, John Fields, M. W. King, John Dixon, trustees; D. B. Morgan, clerk and recorder; W. J. McCracken, marshall; D. C. Brush and D. B. Morgan, justices of the peace, and J. Shores, constable.

 In the spring of 1872 W. J. Bowman started the Cloverdale Review, the first paper in that town. After a few issues he abandoned the enterprise. Soon after, J. B. Baccus commenced the publication of the Cloverdale Bee, which he continued for about six months, and then removed the material of the paper to Lakeport, and commenced the publication of the Lakeport Bee, an excellent journal, which still continues.

In November, 1876, the Cloverdale News was started by W. S. Walker; after issuing several numbers Mr. Walker sold his interest to J. F. Hoadley, and the paper is now under the editorial control of J. F. Hoadley, Jr. Mr. H. is young in the business, but makes a very readable paper, which will bear its full share in the future development of the interests of the city of Cloverdale and the surrounding country.




Dry hides ................................             1,437

 Green " ....................................           874                  64,954

Wool, bales ..............................           4,218

 " 1/2 " ..................................               1,200               1,510,631

Hops, bales ..............................           1,630               327,201

Quicksilver ....................................                              101,636

Tallow, packages ...........................      353                  20,080

Poultry, dozen ...........................          3,920               296,000

Eggs, dozen .............................            47,000             94,000